Body Fluid Mid Exam
1. Which of the following is the amount of total body fluid? 42L
2. Which of the following is the normal osmolarity of ECF? 270-290mOSM
3. Which of the following is a retroperitoneal organ? Kidney
4. (case of person had road traffic accident and have injury at the sacral segment of spinal cord) which
of the following deformities may occur in this patient? Atonic Bladder
5. A 50-year-old male develops acute renal failure with dark urine one week after a flu-like illness. A
renal biopsy is likely to reveal? Crescentic glomerulonephritis
6. The trigone of the bladder is developed from Which of the following? Mesonephric duct
7. The glomerulus receives ……. of the plasma flow? 20%
8. Which of the following have an apical brush surface? Proximal convoluted tubule
9. Case of patient had a road traffic accident and loss 20% of the blood which of the following fluid
replacement will be given to him? Fresh Frozen Plasma
10. Case of patient had dysuria and the diagnosis shows more than 100,000 colonies of E. coli and she’s
start the treatment, if the infection recur what will be the diagnosis? Chronic pyelonephritis
11. Which of the following is most appropriate for a female suffering from insulin dependent diabetes
mellitus with pH of 7.2, HCO3- 17 mmol/L and pCO2-20mm Hg? Metabolic acidosis
12. A 20y-old female student suffered a panic attack while giving a presentation and is rapidly
breathing, what do you expect out of the following may she develop? Respiratory Alkalosis
13. Which of the following is the posterior boundary of epiploic foramen? Inferior vena cava
14. Which of the following relation is the interior to Right ureter? Duodenum
15. Which of the following is the counter current multiplier? Loop of Henle
16. A patient is in intensive care because he suffered a road traffic accident, and the lab reports the pH
7.2 (7.35 – 7.45) pCO2 = 26 mmHg (Normal= 40mmHg) HCO3- = 15mEq/L (Normal=24mEq/L) what
will be the diagnosis (acid base disorder)?
17. Comatose patient with pH 7.1 (7.35 – 7.45) pCO2 = 20 mmHg (Normal= 40mmHg) HCO3- = 12mEq/L
(Normal=24mEq/L) what will be the diagnosis (acid base disorder)?
18. The stretch receptor is present in which part of urinary track? Urinary bladder
19. Passive secretion of urea into thin LOH is fascillated by which of the following? UT-A2
20. Which of the following proteins is triggered by furosemide? Na-K-Cl2
21. Long-term used of diuretics such as thiazide Diuretics may lead to which of the following acid-base
disorder? Metabolic Alkalosis
22. macula densa cells is part of which of the following? Distal tubule
23. The renal artery arises from the abdominal aorta at the level of? L2
24. Lymphatic drainage of Bladder is? external iliac nodes
25. Thirst Center present in the brain at which of the following? Hypothalamus
26. Placement of catheter in which of the following has higher risk to develop thrombosis?
27. At which extent of bladder fluid content exceeds, and the urine will start to dribble in spite of the
voluntary control? 700 ml
28. Which of the following forces is practically zero under normal conditions? Colloid osmotic pressure
of proteins in Bowman’s capsule
29. Substance used to measure GFR which Neither reabsorbed nor secretes? Inulin
30. What is the type of epithelium present in Thin loop of Henle? Simple squamous epithelium
1. Define homeostasis? List Primary Regulatory Hormones of homeostasis?
2. Mention any two of major ions in the body fluids and describe their significance?
3. Which condition may lead to this fluid shift?
4. A 12-year-old boy with septicemia develops hematuria, hypertension, and oliguria. Microscopic examination reveals enlarged glomeruli with diffuse mesangial and endothelial hypercellularity.
a. The best diagnosis is?
b. Mention 2 diseases causes this lesion?
c. Describe the pathogenesis of the lesion?
5. Describe the Arterial supply of kidney?
6. List the structures passing through hilum with their arrangement?
7. Describe the role of kidneys in maintenance of acid base balance?
8. List any 4 causes of metabolic alkalosis?
9. Describe the Filtration barrier?
10. Enumerate any 4 Developmental anomalies of Kidney?
11. Enumerate any 2 Developmental anomalies of Ureter?
12. Describe the Parts of male urethra
13. Write any 4 differences between crystalloid and colloid solutions
14. Define the Anion gap? Mention the normal value of it?
15. Define/describe the counter current mechanism? What its main functions?
16. What is the main function of autoregulation? And list the parts of juxtaglomerular
17. Define the GFR? And list 4 factors affecting the GFR