1-formation of RBCs in the first 6 week
Liver & spleen
Bone marrow BM Sternum
2-essential for DNA synthesis
Vitamin B12 & Folic acid Copper (Cu)
Deficiency of B12 & Folic acid Iron
4- Pathological: HbS
the amino acid valine is substituted for glutamic acid at position 6 the amino acid glycin is substituted for glutamic acid at position 6 the amino acid valine is substituted for glutamic acid at position 7
5- Common clinical features of sickle cell anaemia
7- Sickle cell disease Usually follows infection with
parvovirus B19 (in exam com like that parvo virus without B19)
8- Thalassaemia haemoglobin suffer patient:
HbA HbF Hbs
9- Hb H:
3 genes deleted
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
4 genes deleted
2-1 genes deleted
10- Centrifuged blood 3 layers in middle layers
11- Controls colloidal osmotic pressure.
12- first line defense against infection
– Neutrophils Basophils
14- weak phagocytes
15- liberate heparin into circulation to prevent blood coagulation.
16- Activated platelet phospholipids
platelet factor 3 ThxA2
17- help Platelet adhere to collagen
von Willebrand factor (VWF) ThxA2
18- Vitamin K-dependent clotting factors are:
VIII III II I
19- on endothelial surface is repellent for platelets & clotting factors
Healthy smooth endothelium
21- universal donors
O AB B A
22- factor digest plasmin FactorXI
Factor XIII ANS:
23- Investigations iron deficiency anaemia
Increase cytokines level
Increase iron serum
24- Aplastic Anemia is bone marrow failure leading to Hypocellularity
25- (most sensitive & specific) Infectious mononucleosis
Plasmin digests fibrin fibers and some other protein coagulants such as fibrinogen,
Factor V, Factor VIII, prothrombin, and Factor XII. Therefore, whenever plasmin is formed, it
can cause lysis of a clot by destroying many of the clotting factors,thereby sometimes even
causing hypocoagulability of the blood.
(Viral Capsid Antigen)
Paul Bunnel Test
26- Sickle Cell Anemia Leading causes of ischemia-related death
Acute Chest Syndrome
27- skull is bossed with prominent frontal and parietal bones;
Sickle Cell Anemia
Magnesium ammonium phosphate stones
Uric acid stones
29- genetic defect in renal transport of amino acids
31- The renal cortical surface shows diffuse, fine granularity that resembles grain leather Arterionephrosclerosis
Renal tubue necrosis
32- Acute tubular necrosis (ATN) common cause
acute renal failure.
33-senario (Prothrombin time) measures effectiveness of
, VII XI
34- megakaryocytes depression (Thrombocytopenia)
35- Platelets dysfunction:
prolonged bleeding time
36- Bernard Soulier syndrome
failure of binding to VWF
37- due to antibodies production,
Hyperglobulinemia: 38- 2- Hemophilia A:
PTT : prolonged
prolonged bleeding time
39- porphyrias are:
Autosomal dominant disorders.
Autosomal recessive disorders
40- Congenital porphyrias are autosomal dominant except is autosomal recessive.
Erythropoietic Protoporphyria (EPP)( Non –Acute Porphyria) 41- (Acute intermittent porphyria
Uroporphyrinogen I synthetase deficiency
Uroporphyrinogen III synthetase deficiency
Uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase deficiency
Moxifloxacin Levofloxacin Norfloxacin
Hypertensive or Flu like symptoms lasting 2-4 hr
Inhibit Bacterial DNA gyrase Inhibit Dihydrofolate synthetase
Inhibit viral DNA
44- highest half life and its dose need not be reduced in patient with creatinine clearance
46- increase iron absorption
47- Adverse effects pigmentation of skin Intramuscular iron
48- Factor Xa inhibitors
Rivoroxaba Bivalirudin Dabigatran
49- Antagonist is Vit K WARFARIN
50- behind the peritoneum and are only partially covered with visceral peritoneum.
51- Relations Kidney Posterior:
52- Separated by from the tips of the transverse processes of the lumbar vertebrae.
the psoas muscle
common iliac artery
53- Relations – Right Kidney Anterior:
54- posterior kidney
Two branches of the renal artery Ureter
55- Visceral layer of Bowman’s capsule:
simple squamous epithelium
special epithelium (podocytes) seq:
1. Define Oliguria , List the various causes of oliguria?(3marks)
2. Medical condition associated with Oligouria?(2marks)
3. Acute tubular necrosis (ATN)?
4. Classification of Renal Vascular Diseases?(3marks)
5. Define and classify nephrosclerosis.?(2marks)
6. Pathogenesis (renal stone)(2marks)
7. Characterized vascular bleeding disorders (2marks)
8. Definition (MCV)- (MCH)- (MCHC)(2marks)
9. Cotrimoxazole adverse effects
10. Adverse reactions to oral iron (1mark)
11. Advantages of LMWH over Unfractionated heparin(2marks)
12. Drug interactions with warfarin(2marks)
13. 6 Functions of blood(3marks)
14. Adult Hb Vs Fetal Hb(3marks)
15. Stages of Eythropoiesis
16. Acquired Immunity VS Innate Immunity(3marks)
17. list Fluroquinolones:( (2marks)
تجميعات سنوات سابقة :
￼￼1- Describe Kidney Complications in Hypertension?
2- What are the Stages of Erythropoiesis?
3- Compare between Red blood cells, White blood cells, Platelets?
4- Describe in detail catabolism of hemoglobin?
5- Enumerate the steps of blood coagulation in extrinsic pathway and intrinsic pathway. 6- Describe the mechanism of phagocytosis?
7- Compare between Innate and Acquired Immunity?
8- What is Glanzmann’s Disease (Thrombasthenia)?
9- Define Anemias?
10- What are the common causes of Megaloblastic Anemia?
11- Compare between Iron Deficiency Anemia and Anemia of Chronic Disease?
12- Define Aplastic anemia?
￼13- Discuss intravascular & extravascular hemolytic anemias? 14- List the Clinical features of sickle cell anemia?
15- What are the adverse effects of oral iron?
16- Classify the Causes of Thrombocytopenia?
17- What are the Acquired Coagulation bleeding disorders? 18- What is the Karl Landsteiners Rule?
19- Compare between HEPARIN and WARFARIN?
20- Enumerate five FIBRINOLYTICS?
21- What are the Clinical features acute reactive lymphadenitis?
انتهى………………. بالتوفيق للجميع…………….