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Reply To: Protected: FINAL body fluid #batch_36


Omar
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1-formation of RBCs in the first 6 week
 Yolk sac
 Liver & spleen
 Bone marrow BM  Sternum
2-essential for DNA synthesis
 Vitamin B12 & Folic acid  Copper (Cu)
 Iron (Fe)
 Proteins
3-Megaloblastic anaemia
 Deficiency of B12 & Folic acid  Iron
4- Pathological: HbS
 the amino acid valine is substituted for glutamic acid at position 6  the amino acid glycin is substituted for glutamic acid at position 6  the amino acid valine is substituted for glutamic acid at position 7
5- Common clinical features of sickle cell anaemia
 Vaso-occlusive crises
 Sequestration crises
 Aplastic Crises
7- Sickle cell disease Usually follows infection with
 parvovirus B19 (in exam com like that parvo virus without B19)
 fungue
 bactiria
8- Thalassaemia haemoglobin suffer patient:
 HbA  HbF  Hbs
9- Hb H:
 3 genes deleted
Final
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
 4 genes deleted
 2-1 genes deleted
10- Centrifuged blood 3 layers in middle layers
 WBC
 RBC
 Plasma
11- Controls colloidal osmotic pressure.
 Albumin
 Globulin
 Fibrinogen
12- first line defense against infection
 – Neutrophils  Basophils
 Eosinophils
13- Chemotaxis
 C3
 C5
 Thrombxan A2
14- weak phagocytes
 Neutrophils  Basophils
 Eosinophils
15- liberate heparin into circulation to prevent blood coagulation.
 Neutrophils  Basophils
 Eosinophils
16- Activated platelet phospholipids
 platelet factor 3  ThxA2
 FIBROBLAST
17- help Platelet adhere to collagen
 von Willebrand factor (VWF)  ThxA2

18- Vitamin K-dependent clotting factors are:
 VIII  III  II I
19- on endothelial surface is repellent for platelets & clotting factors
 Glycocalyx
 Thrombomodulin
 Healthy smooth endothelium
20-cold antibodies
 IgM
 IgG
 Rh antibodies
21- universal donors
O  AB B A
22- factor digest plasmin  FactorXI
 Factor XIII ANS:
23- Investigations iron deficiency anaemia
 Reduce ferritin
 Increase cytokines level
 Increase iron serum
24- Aplastic Anemia is bone marrow failure leading to  Hypocellularity
 Hypercellularity
25- (most sensitive & specific) Infectious mononucleosis
 Monospot Test
Plasmin digests fibrin fibers and some other protein coagulants such as fibrinogen,
Factor V, Factor VIII, prothrombin, and Factor XII. Therefore, whenever plasmin is formed, it
can cause lysis of a clot by destroying many of the clotting factors,thereby sometimes even
causing hypocoagulability of the blood.

 (Viral Capsid Antigen)
 (Early Antigen)
 Paul Bunnel Test
26- Sickle Cell Anemia Leading causes of ischemia-related death
 Acute Chest Syndrome
 Salmonella Osteomyelitis
27- skull is bossed with prominent frontal and parietal bones;
 β-thalassaemia major.
 Sickle Cell Anemia
28- radiopaque:
 Calcium stones
 Magnesium ammonium phosphate stones
 Uric acid stones
29- genetic defect in renal transport of amino acids
 Cystine stones
 Calcium stones
30- Arterionephrosclerosis-
 Benign Nephrosclerosis
 Malignant Nephrosclerosis
31- The renal cortical surface shows diffuse, fine granularity that resembles grain leather  Arterionephrosclerosis
 Renal tubue necrosis
32- Acute tubular necrosis (ATN) common cause
 acute renal failure.
33-senario (Prothrombin time) measures effectiveness of
 , VII  XI
 III
34- megakaryocytes depression  (Thrombocytopenia)
35- Platelets dysfunction:

 prolonged bleeding time
 prolonged PT
 prolonged PTT
36- Bernard Soulier syndrome
 failure of binding to VWF
 ThxA2
37- due to antibodies production,
 Hyperglobulinemia: 38- 2- Hemophilia A:
 PTT : prolonged
 prolonged bleeding time
39- porphyrias are:
 Autosomal dominant disorders.
 Autosomal recessive disorders
40- Congenital porphyrias are autosomal dominant except is autosomal recessive.
 Erythropoietic Protoporphyria (EPP)( Non –Acute Porphyria) 41- (Acute intermittent porphyria
 Uroporphyrinogen I synthetase deficiency
 Uroporphyrinogen III synthetase deficiency
 Uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase deficiency
42- Fluroquinolones
  
 Moxifloxacin  Levofloxacin  Norfloxacin
45- Erythropoietin:
 Hypertensive or Flu like symptoms lasting 2-4 hr
 Hypertention
 Bradycardia
Inhibit Bacterial DNA gyrase Inhibit Dihydrofolate synthetase
Inhibit viral DNA
44- highest half life and its dose need not be reduced in patient with creatinine clearance

46- increase iron absorption
 VitC
 VitB
 Calcium
47- Adverse effects pigmentation of skin  Intramuscular iron
48- Factor Xa inhibitors
 Rivoroxaba  Bivalirudin  Dabigatran
49- Antagonist is Vit K  WARFARIN
 HEPARIN
50- behind the peritoneum and are only partially covered with visceral peritoneum.
 pancreas,  spleen
 liver
51- Relations Kidney Posterior:
 Subcostal
 Suprarenal gland
 Liver
52- Separated by from the tips of the transverse processes of the lumbar vertebrae.
 the psoas muscle
 common iliac artery
 ischial spine
53- Relations – Right Kidney Anterior:
 Liver
 Spleen
 Stomach  Pancreas
54- posterior kidney

 Renal vein
 Two branches of the renal artery  Ureter
55- Visceral layer of Bowman’s capsule:
 simple squamous epithelium
 special epithelium (podocytes) seq:
1. Define Oliguria , List the various causes of oliguria?(3marks)
2. Medical condition associated with Oligouria?(2marks)
3. Acute tubular necrosis (ATN)?
4. Classification of Renal Vascular Diseases?(3marks)
5. Define and classify nephrosclerosis.?(2marks)
6. Pathogenesis (renal stone)(2marks)
7. Characterized vascular bleeding disorders (2marks)
8. Definition (MCV)- (MCH)- (MCHC)(2marks)
9. Cotrimoxazole adverse effects
10. Adverse reactions to oral iron (1mark)
11. Advantages of LMWH over Unfractionated heparin(2marks)
12. Drug interactions with warfarin(2marks)
13. 6 Functions of blood(3marks)
14. Adult Hb Vs Fetal Hb(3marks)
15. Stages of Eythropoiesis
16. Acquired Immunity VS Innate Immunity(3marks)
17. list Fluroquinolones:( (2marks)
تجميعات سنوات سابقة :
1- Describe Kidney Complications in Hypertension?
2- What are the Stages of Erythropoiesis?
3- Compare between Red blood cells, White blood cells, Platelets?
4- Describe in detail catabolism of hemoglobin?
5- Enumerate the steps of blood coagulation in extrinsic pathway and intrinsic pathway. 6- Describe the mechanism of phagocytosis?
7- Compare between Innate and Acquired Immunity?
8- What is Glanzmann’s Disease (Thrombasthenia)?
9- Define Anemias?
10- What are the common causes of Megaloblastic Anemia?
11- Compare between Iron Deficiency Anemia and Anemia of Chronic Disease?
12- Define Aplastic anemia?
13- Discuss intravascular & extravascular hemolytic anemias? 14- List the Clinical features of sickle cell anemia?
15- What are the adverse effects of oral iron?
16- Classify the Causes of Thrombocytopenia?
17- What are the Acquired Coagulation bleeding disorders? 18- What is the Karl Landsteiners Rule?
19- Compare between HEPARIN and WARFARIN?
20- Enumerate five FIBRINOLYTICS?
21- What are the Clinical features acute reactive lymphadenitis?
انتهى………………. بالتوفيق للجميع…………….