1- Enlist electrolytes and nonelectrolytes particles in the body?
❖ Electrolytes – charged particles
▪ Cations – positively charged ions ( Na+, K+ , Ca++, H+ )
▪ Anions – negatively charged ions ( Cl-, HCO3- , PO43- )
❖ Non-electrolytes – Uncharged ( Proteins, urea, glucose, O2, CO2 )
2- What are the Primary Regulatory Hormones Affecting fluid and electrolyte balance?
1) Antidiuretic hormone.
2) Aldosteron hormone.
3) Natriuretic peptide hormone.
3- Classify the Buffers system types?
1) Bicarbonate buffer system.
2) Phosphate buffer system.
3) Protein buffer system.
4- What are the indications for total and partial parenteral therapy?
Indications for TPN
▪ Bowel injury, surgery, major trauma or burns
▪ Bowel disease (e.g. obstructions, fistulas)
▪ Severe malnutrition
▪ Nutritional preparation prior to surgery.
▪ Malabsorption – bowel cancer
▪ Severe pancreatitis
▪ Malnourished patients who have high risk of
Long-term use (HOME PN)
▪ Prolonged Intestinal Failure
▪ Crohn’s Disease
▪ Bowel resection
partial parenteral therapy
▪ Short bowel syndrome
▪ Malabsorption disorders
▪ Critical illness or wasting disorders
5- Discuss the renal arterial blood supply?
▪ Renal artery.
▪ Accessory renal artery:
▪ Renal vein : from the hilum into inferior vena cava
6- What are the different between Female Urethra and Male Urethra?
▪ Divided into three portions, the prostatic, membranous, and cavernous/penile/spongy
▪ Prostatic : widest and most dilatable part , 3 cm. long
▪ The membranous portion: shortest, least dilatable
▪ Spongy part: longest part of the urethra
▪ 15 cm. long
▪ 3 to 4 cm long
▪ External urethral orifice between vaginal orifice and clitoris
▪ Internal urethral sphincter detrusor muscle thickened, smooth muscle, involuntary control
▪ External urethral Sphincter :skeletal muscle, voluntary control
7- Describe the location and shape of kidney?
▪ Are reddish brown, beans shaped.
▪ Lie behind the peritoneum,
▪ Extend from T12 to L3 vertebra.
▪ The right kidney lies slightly lower than the left kidney because of the large size of the right lobe of the liver.
8- Discuss the renin angiotensin work?
• Renin acts on angiotensinogen in the plasma, converting it to angiotensin I.
• Angiotensin I is converted by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) to angiotensin II
• Angiotensin II
• A potent vasoconstrictor à increase blood pressure
• Stimulates release of aldosterone in the adrenal cortex. Aldosterone stimulates the epithelial cells of the distal convoluted tubule to remove Na and Cl from lumen of tubules to the blood. Water follows the ions à increase the fluid volume à increase blood pressure.
9- Describe the position of kidney the Development of urinary system?
10- What is the Mechanism of Micturition?
11- What are the forces acting for glomerular filtration?
12- Summarize the steps of urine formation?
13- What is counter current mechanism?
A counter current mechanism is a system in which the inflow runs parallel to, counter to and in close proximity to the outflow.
14- What are the factors that Stimulate thirst center?
15- What is mechanism of action of Hydrochlorothiazide? What are adverse effects of furosemide?
16- List any five General Principles of treatment of UTI?
17- The pathogenesis of Pyelonephritis?
18- Differentiate between Nephritic Syndrome and Nephrotic Syndrome?
19- List any five Risk or predisposing factors renal stone?
20- Enumerate some medical conditions that associated with Oliguria?