i. Boundaries of femoral triangle:
Base : Inguinal ligament
Medially : Medial border of adductor longus
Laterally : Medial border of sartorius
Apex : Meeting point of medial and lateral borders
Roof : Skin, Superficial fascia with its contents and the deep fascia:
Floor : Iliopsoas, pectineus and adductor longus (from lateral to medial).
2. Define femoral hernia?
•It is the protrusion of abdominal contents through the femoral canal.
•It is more common in female because of wider pelvis and narrower vessels.
3. Define the term varicose veins?
•Tortuous, dilated, enlarged and visible veins.
•Is more common in people who are standing for long time eg. Traffic police, surgeons.
4. Femoral sheath.
Anterior wall: Fascia transversalis.
Posterior wall: Fascia iliac
1. Lateral compartment: It transmits femoral artery and femoral branch of genitofemoral nerve.
2. Intermediate compartment: It transmits the femoral vein.
3. Medial compartment: It contains the fatty connective tissue and deep inguinal lymph nodes. It is also called the femoral canal.
5. Branches of femoral nerve:
a. Anterior division:
1. Cutaneous branches:
2. Muscular branches:
b. Posterior division:
1. Cutaneous branch:
2. Muscular branches:
6. Branches of femoral artery:
1. Superficial branches:
ØSuperficial circumflex iliac artery.
ØSuperficial epigastric artery.
ØSuperficial external pudendal artery.
2. Deep external pudendal artery:
ØIt supplies the skin of the scrotum or labia majora.
7. Structures passing through the saphenous opening:
qGreat saphenous vein
qSuperficial branches of the femoral artery
8. Tributaries of great saphenous vein:
qSuperficial veins in the leg and thigh.
qCommunicating vein with small saphenous vein.
qThree superficial veins:
ØSuperficial epigastric vein.
ØSuperficial external pudendal vein.
Superficial circumflex iliac vein.
9. Branches of Profunda femoris artery:
ØMedial Circumflex femoral A
ØLateral Circumflex femoral A
Three perforating arteries.
Origin: Anterior superior iliac spine.
Insertion: Upper part of the medial
Nerve supply: Femoral nerve
ØFlexion, abduction and lateral rotation of the thigh at hip joint.
ØFlexion and medial rotation of the leg at knee joint.
11. Iliotibial tract:
Modification of Deep fascia of the thigh (fascia lata )
Superiorly: Iliac tubercle.
Inferiorly: : Lateral condyle of the tibia.
Gives insertion to:
•Tensor fasciae lata.
•Greater part of gluteus maximus.
12. Define the process of resegmentation during the development of the vertebral column?
Each vertebra is formed by fusion of a condensation of the caudal half of one pair of sclerotomes with the cranial half of the subjacent pair of
13. Derivatives of notochord:
2- Apical ligament of dens
14. Remnant of notochord:
↓ of cervical vertebrae , and some of them are fused or abnormal shape
15. Developmental limb anomalies:
Define syndactyly : fusion of the fingers or toes, involving soft parts only or including bone structure.
Define polydactyly : the condition of having more than the normal number of fingers or toes.
16. Bursae : is a small fluid-filled sac lined by synovial membrane with an inner capillary layer of viscous synovial fluid (similar in consistency to that of a raw egg white). It provides a cushion between bones and tendons and/or muscles around a joint. This helps to reduce friction between the bones and allows free movement. Bursae are found around most major joints of the body
Housemaids Knee : Inflammation of Prepatellar bursa: Prepatellar bursitis
Clergyman’s Knee : Inflammation of Subcutaneous Infrapatellar bursa: Subcutaneous Infrapatellar bursitis
17. Muscles and movement Knee joint:
o Flexion: Hamstring muscles – Biceps femoris, semitendinosus and
o Extension: Quadriceps femoris
o Medial rotation: Sartorius, gracilis and semitendinosus – (SGS)
o Lateral rotation: Biceps femoris
18. Derived from:
Tibial collateral ligament : Medial collateral Ligament
Fibular collateral ligament : Lateral collateral ligament
oblique popliteal ligament : Is a tendinous expansion derived
from the semimembranosus muscle.
19. Action of popliteus:
Flexion and internal rotation of the knee joint
20. Give examples of fibrocartilage?
– ntervertebral discs
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